Thesis writer s dream

The Grammars of Carey and Wilkins, notwithstanding their acknowledged merit, were but little applicable to my pur- pose. In the use of translations I have strictly confined myself to such as were generally al- lowed to be correct by Sanscrit scholars them- selves ; rejecting, on the other hand, all poeti- cal versions, or at least imitations, similar to those of Sir William Jones, which it is obvious cannot safely be depended on.

Should it ne- vertheless be objected to me that an acquaint- ance with the Sanscrit is indispensable to a writer on Sanscrit literature, I answer, that my enquiries do not so much concern language as PREFACE. It may be as well, however, to enter some- what more into detail with regard to the par- ticular subjects discussed in the first chapter of the ensuing Researches.

My object was to furnish a critical view of Hindu Archeaology, whether consisting in ancient works of art, or the writings of native authors.

This chapter, therefore, was intended to supply such a body of useful preliminary information as, in addi- tion to a knowledge of the language, would enable the student to prosecute his enquiries into the literature and antiquities of India.

That some such introduction to the study would not only be serviceable, but even necessary, can hardly admit of doubt. When the present essay was first published, in the yearthere was absolutely no simi- lar compilation then in existence ; and the very favourable reception awarded to my under- taking, inspired me with well-grounded hopes that I had not laboured in vain, and had even materially contributed to introduce the study of Sanscrit literature among the scholars of Germany. Since that period, however, I thesis content writer s dream not yet been able to meet with any work com- pletely satisfactory on the subject, and calcu- lated to supply all the deficiencies of our ex- isting information relative to India.

I can promise no learned disquisitions on the mytho- logical, philosophical, or religious systems of the ancient Hindus ; and least of all is it my purpose to institute a comparison censorship of pornography them and other nations in any of these points, or thesis content writer s dream investigate the probable manner in which such systems may have been communicated thesis content writer s dream other countries.

An undertaking of this nature, be- sides being extremely hazardous, would alto- gether exceed the legitimate province of his- tory. I shall therefore be satisfied with merely introducing the reader to the threshhold, if I may so call it, of Hindu Archaeology; well aware that even such a step will not be deemed superfluous, if he. The study and elucidation of Indian antiqui- ties from native sources, is, in my opinion, one of the most important additions that have been made to the literature of the present day, and will, dissertation postgraduate is hoped, enlarge its circle of acquire- ments to a much greater extent hereafter.

It is not merely the aesthetic merit of Sanscrit literature, great as that is, which renders it so valuable in our estimation ; the same merit also attaches to it in an historical point of view. We must, indeed, allow, that we are not yet enabled to attempt any composition resembling a consecutive critico-chronological history of PREFACE.

XV ancient India ; the means at our present dis- posal are far too inadequate to effect such a laborious undertaking ; and probably they will continue to be so. At the same time, however, while it carries us back into remote ages, and among a distant people, who have attained a high and peculiar degree of civilization, the an- cient literature of the Hindus discloses to our sight a new world, which is so much the more captivating, as it is thesis writer s dream different from our own.

I would ask, is thesis writer% 27s dream addition thereby made to the general history of mankind of no more value than a series of chronological tables, containing only a dry nomenclature of princes and dates? Our present knowledge of Sanscrit literature may be said to stand nearly on the same foot- ing as that of the Greek did in Italy towards the end of the fifteenth century.

The inestim- able benefits which the study of the latter has conferred upon the whole western world, are too well known ; and though it were presump- tuous, perhaps, to expect the same important consequences from the study of the Sanscrit, yet we are not without the wish and the ex- pectation, that it may also flourish and produce its own peculiar fruits.

July 27, Strabo, lib. The historians who have enquired into the religion and learning of the East, have almost always been obliged to revert to India for in- formation in their researches. That distant country however, has at no former period at- tracted the attention of Europeans, in these particulars, so much as at the present day. From the time that it became subject to the English, it has excited their regard, not more by its productions than by its arts and litera- ture : and the learned of Great Britian now flatter themselves, that they have at length B 2 INDIANS.

These enquiries have given rise to corresponding ones in Germany; the number of students in this department of letters has greatly increased ; the sacred language of In- dia together with its literature and poetry have been introduced to our acquaintance ; and edi- tions of Sanscrit works printed in the original character have issued from the German press, as well as from those on the banks of the Ganges and the Thames.

Of the writings of the above Society contained in the Asiatic Researches I have only consulted the first twelve vols. The essays of Sir. Jones may be found also in his Works, vol.

Developing A Thesis -

What do we really know of the ancient learning of this people? Of their religion, their poetry, their arts, their political institutions, or of their com- merce, and their influence upon other nations?

From what sources do we derive this know- ledge? And to what extent are these sources themselves clear and authentic, or the reverse? We must satisfy ourselves upon all these points before we can even pronounce upon our ability to compose an historical sketch of that olden time when the Hindus, as yet their own mas- ters, and not bowed down under the voke of a foreign conqueror, had free and unfenered li- berty of developing the national character.

Such an enquiry as this however, is one of the most difficult for many reasons. First of all the very abundance of materials itself is one obstacle.

And again, notwithstanding the vast accumulation of facts, we are perpetually meeting with great and important chasms. Add to this the still greater number of thesis writer s dream ties naturally inherent in the subject, which im- pede the progress of investigation, and which can only be removed by an intimate acquaint- ance with the spirit and ways of thinking pecu- liar to Eastern nations ; it is by such means alone that we can hope to arrive at more ample and satisfactory conclusions.

It is true we have one great how to write a report for attachment here which does not assist our researches into most other nations of antiquity - it is the fact that the Hindus still exist as a people. Completely separate by their customs and religion from the rest of the world, and disdaining to make converts, they have thereby preserved their na- tional existence.

Even the foreigners who have settled among them, and what is still more surprising their very conquerors, remain altogether as distinct and isolated as they would be in their own native land. It is this exclusive character which renders communica- tion with them so difficult, and checks all our enquiries. And though it is very probable they would not under all circumstances main- tain the same reserve towards a foreigner, who knew how to insinuate himself into their confi- CHAP.

The Hindu passes as it were a kind of spirit- ual existence in ages long since gone by. The present is to him an age of profound corruption, and according to his legendary notions a still more deeply corrupted era is to ensue, until the restoration of a former happy state shall introduce a new and better order of things. But this present age, truly so named by us, is no other than what an European writer would generally term "The Age of History.

His soul discovers more abundant nourishment in the contemplation of those far distant periods of time when the mighty Vishnu, disguised as Rama, made war on the Demons, or when, in the character of Krishna, he became the re- storer of a better order of things.

His Hindu teacher had falsified the names of places occurring in the MSS. What could reconcile him to such studies as those to which we are indebted for our critical history of his country- men? To no purpose should we search for a native of this description, and yet, nevertheless, to the Hindu, such as he is, does the European apply for information.

The grand object, therefore, of a writer who would describe this singular people, would be to make himself a Hindu among Hindus, without at the same time divesting himself of the character of an Euro- pean.

Whoever has satisfied himself of the difficulty of fulfilling these requisites, must ne- cessarily in proportion as he distrusts his own abilities, be obliged to make larger claims upon the impartial judgment of his readers. Even though he had in person visited the banks of the Jumna and the Ganges, and received in- struction at the feet of the most learned pundits of Benares, yet he must still allow the impossi- bility of fully complying with the pre-requisites to his task.

How then must the difficulties be increased to one who living under a dreary northern sky, has never beheld the gorgeous magnificence of an Indian climate ; who, out of why i can t do my homework its rich literature is acquainted with but a few detached fragments ; and who, in order to obtain even this scanty knowledge, must con- tent himself with translations, themselves pro- bably imperfect and incorrect?

We have however thanks to the preparatory CHAP. It will therefore be our principal task to determine the correctness and extent of our sphere of vision, as well as to ascertain the degree of clearness with which the several ob- jects strike our view.

It is indeed always a considerable point gained, when we are able to distinguish what we know from that which we are ignorant of. The day perhaps may come when the mists which now intercept our obser- vation will be dissipated ; should that 'ever be the case, some later artist may then fill up this imperfect outline with a more sure and success- ful hand.

Incomplete and defective as it now is, it will nevertheless, till that time have a cer- tain value, and will perhaps suffer but little in the estimation of my successor even should he pass a correct and impartial judgment on its merits. Since then the object of our enquiries has been thus determined, it follows, of course, that we have here nothing to do with thesis writer% 27s dream down systems of Hindu religion and philosophy by themselves, nor with starting hypotheses, as for example, touching the earliest connection of In- dia with Egypt, or the transmission of Hindu civilization into the Western World, etc.

The general opinion of ancient as well as of modern times is unanimous in considering the Hindus as one of the earliest, if not in fact the thesis writer% 27s dream, civilized nation in the world. Or, have not we also good reasons for being incredulous in an equal ratio to their own exaggerated accounts of their antiquity, particularly as it appears more and more evident that India is the last place to look to for any thing like authentic systems of chronology?

To this question however we shall only be able to furnish a decisive answer in the sequel of our enquiry. Under the the title of high antiquity we generally compre- hend that space of time which extends to the tenth century before the Christian era. The historic records of no other people, if we except the Jews, reaches beyond this point.

All that goes further back is concealed beneath the cloak of tradition and hieroglyphics, and as long as we can draw no broad line of demarca- tion in the case, the definition just laid down will generally be found sufficient for our pur- pose. Whether the civilization of India reaches back to one thousand years before the Christian era, as is pretty certain, or even to two, which is not improbable, can never be a question al- together devoid of interest.

But it is equally certain that at the precise point where the thread of history and the connection of its de- tails is broken off, the interest attached to accu- rate chronological data ends likewise ; and all judicious readers must be unanimous in allow- ing that a good bibliography is much better to confess ignorance, than boldly to substitute conjecture in the place of knowledge : at the same time however a writer must have free permission to advance probabilities and even, occasionally, conjectures, as such.

The first of these authorities has already, in great measure, been weighed and examined in our work on Persian India, and the writers themselves are too well known to require any critical notice in this place.

I shall content myself therefore with repeating the general conclusion deduced from their histories, that, at the period of the Macedonian invasion, nearly three hundred and fifty years before the commencement of our era, the Hindus already appeared to have reached the same degree of refinement and civilization both in public and private thesis writer s dream, which they subsequently maintain- ed : we are therefore fully authorized in the conclusion, that this civilized state must then have been several hundred years in existence, and even extend as far back as that ''high an- tiquity" above defined.

The present Enquiry then will be limited solely to a consideration of Indian sources of information : these are of a twofold description ; Monuments and Writings. Each kind will therefore require a separate ex- amination.

J The monuments still remaining of Indian architecture, considered with a view towards furthering our knowledge of the people, are scarcely less important than those on the banks of the Nile are for a similar purpose with re- spect to the Egyptians. Who has not, even though he may be ignorant of all else, at least CHAP. These serve to confirm the remark, that the more India is examined, the greater variety of illustrative subject-matter, in this point of view, presents itself to the enquirer.

But before we can regard Hindu monuments as authentic sources of information on the anti- quities of India, we ought previously to ascer- tain the extent of our acquaintance with them ; - how far in connection with this object they have already been examined - to what degree they are capable of further illustration? And moreover, what are the conclusions, particularly with respect to the antiquity of the nation, which we are enabled to deduce from our pre- sent knowledge of them? Our first endeavour then will be to furnish a satisfactory thesis writer% 27s dream to each of these questions.

We are indebted for almost all that we know of Indian monuments to the labours of English- men. Neither the Portuguese nor the Dutch, nor yet the French, have employed their minds on the subject, if we except a few occasional remarks occuring in books of Travels. But partial notices and even descriptions in detail, explain but little when unaccompanied with accurate engravings.

The English have pre- sented us with several magnificent works on India, but they have for the most part con- sidered the subject in a very different light. The great work of Hodges is composed with this design'.

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The two volumes of copperplate il- lustrations contain only two pages descriptive of ancient Hindu temples, the pagodas, namely, of Deogur and Tanjore.

In a work indeed of this kind every thing abstract of a dissertation calculated more for ef- fect than to give a true and correct representa- tion; and moreover the whole manner of Hodges is very little adapted to convey an adequate idea of Hindu architecture, as he gives nothing but sketches and views.

The name of Niebuhr is a sufficient guarantee for the cor- rectness of his copies, and we are indebted to that enterprising traveller for a ground-plan of the rock temple, a design of one of the pillars with its dimensions, and seven plates represent- ing the bas-reliefs on the thesis writer s dream.

Other woiks, such as Pennant's Views of Hindostan, which contain no designs of ancient monuments, I shall pass over in silence.

A large field still remains open to future draughtsmen. Thesis content writer s dream Niebuhr's attempt was so much the more meritorious in that it appears to have given the first impulse to British zeal and acti- vity.

It contains merely a notice of the writers who have spoken about Salsette and Elephanta; Niebuhr is translated word for word, and the accompany- ing plates are all copied from his designs : only one new engraving is added, containing ground- plans of the rock temples of Salsette and some others, together with a view of that island, and two or three inscriptions.

Our knowledge of Indian monuments is not therefore much in- creased by this meagre compilation. We are indebted for a more accurate acquaintance with the temples of Salsette to Lord Valentia.

The foundation of the Asiatic Society at Cal- cutta about this time, under the auspices of Sir William Jones, led us to expect fresh informa- tion respecting the monuments of India.

Gough, London, Thankfully as we acknowledge even these, our gratitude would have been much greater had we been favoured with more drawings, and on a larger scale. Their plan comprised the whole extent of Indian antiquities, and even the buildings of modern time, particularly those of the Mogul period.

But even this work, if I may be allowed to judge from what I have seen of it, appears more calculated to charm the eye than inform the understanding. Crawfurd's Sketches of Hindostan, and others. Besides, the edi- tors of this thesis content writer s dream were artists and not scholars ; neither are the monuments there de- signed classed according to time and nation: and we feel the want of a learned commentary to give us the previous instructions under what era to arrange them.

It is impossible there- fore with no better materials than these to com- pose a history of Hindu architecture. The work of Mons. With reference, however, to the accuracy of the monuments of Elephanta designed by them both, it appears to me upon comparison that the preference is due to Niebuhr. The scale too of the designs, 1 think, is not sufficiently large to convey a just idea of the original.

The great in architecture can thesis writer% 27s dream be represented by corresponding great- ness in the delineation. At the same time the work above mentioned proves, in a striking manner, that we have as yet scarcely passed even the threshold of a perfect acquaintance with Hindu monuments.

Langles, Paris, Since this period, a considerable number of Travels and other publications con- nected with India have made their appearance; but I have not been able to meet with any re- markable illustrations, or descriptions of monu- ments contained therein. Fortunate indeed would it have been for our labours, had these interesting relics employed the hand and exercised the ingenuity of a Wood or a Stuart! Every opinion delivered upon architectural remains, must always be hazardous and uncertain when we have no plans on an accurate and extensive scale to guide our judgment.

But nevertheless, we cannot still be said to grope our way in perfect darkness. The works above mentioned have contributed a good deal towards showing the path, and have led to conclusions which are of the greatest importance to a correct knowledge of Indian antiquities. They have all a common connection with religious purposes, being dedicated as well to the worship of Rewrite my essay and Siva or Mahadeva, whose followers exist to this day, as also to Buddha, whose sect, long since expelled this part of India, still sub- sists universally in Ceylon and the Ultra-Gan- getic continent.

I enumerate the above three classes in the order which appears to agree also with the date of their construction. If this be but a conjecture, there certainly is every appearance of probability in its favour, for it can scarcely be maintained that a people, who had already been accustomed to build in the open air, should subsequently begin to lodge their divinities in underground temples ; on the contrary it appears more natural on the very face of things that excavation of the rock should have preceded its exterior embellishment.

Whichever be the real state of the case we must necessarily divide them into three classes, of each of which we will now attempt to give a correct view in succession.

Al- though in the plains of Bengal and the Punjab, the nature of the ground does not admit of their construction, yet, on the other hand, the whole of the peninsula on this side of the Ganges is traversed by a rocky chain of Ghauts, at present in great measure unexplored.

The nature of this country thesis content writer s dream would seem to suggest the conveni- ence of underground habitations, where neither the vertical rays of the sun, nor the motivation case studies torrents of the rainy season could penetrate. It was a religious feeling which transformed a hut into a temple. But an ex- cavation of the rock would seem just so much the more obvious to him as it favoured his de- sign of rendering these monuments of his reli- I Even the naked Hottentots are in the habit of tketching rude designs on the walls of their huts.

But what a wide interval is there between an African kraal and a Hindu rock temple! An authentic account of the rise and progress of grotto architecture were sufficient materials at handwould doubt- less lead to new and interesting conclusions respecting the general histoiy of mankind. A design which is appa- rent in the monuments themselves ; and which is exhibited still more strongly among all na- tions in proportion as we go further back into their antiquity.

This, together with the adjacent buildings, is hewn solely out of the rock, and forms consequently a perfect grotto. Langles, vol ii, p.

In front of the principal entrance facing the north, and therefore sheltered from the sun, is an artificial terrace, from which there is an extensive prospect of the ocean, and on each side is an additional opening to admit the fresh breeze.

The rock thesis writer% 27s dream serves for a roof to this grotto is supported by twenty-six pillars and sixteen pilasters : the latter occupy half of each side, and are left by the architect in the original unhewn state of the material.

The chambers or chapels adjoining are not quite so high, but are finished in precisely the same manner. The walls, without inscriptions, but formerly covered with a beautiful stucco, are still ornamented with reliefs, some of which thesis content writer s dream so highly prominent that the figures are merely attached to the rock by their backs; there is no doubt therefore that they are as old as the temple itself.

Similar carving is observ- able on the walls of other rock temples, and the same figures present themselves : the whole are consequently borrowed from the same my- thology.

The question is, whether from that of the modern Hindus, and whether these mo- numents belong to the same people, or are they the production of an earlier race which has now disappeared, together with its religion? I shall endea- vour, therefore, in following the order of Nie- buhr's drawings, to give some illustration of the subject; premising, however, that where any thing is doubtful I shall choose rather to confess my own ignorance than advance idle conjecture. We here see directly in the entrance of the temple a colossal bust, thirteen feet high, with three heads and four arms.

It represents, as he has rightly observed, the Hindu Trinity "", Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva or Mahadeva, the three Devas, or personifications of the godhead.

The middle one is Brahma, that on the right Vishnu, the left with a serpent and mustachios is Siva. The same mytho- logical idea still remains perfectly unaltered among the modem Hindus. There is an ac- curate representation of these three figures, with their proper attributes, to be seen in an idol of bronze in the Borgian museum, which has already been copied and described by father Paulino I". It is uncertain what characters the large human figures represent which are on each side of the bust ; probably they are chob- dars, or attendants, usually assigned to di- vinities and great men as part of thesis writer% 27s dream retinue.

Paulino, Systema Brafamanicum, p. P Syst. CHAP, u The one on the right hand, supported by a dwarf, bears on his left shoulder a cord, which is the usual distinction of a Brahman, but in many of the reliefs is as often applied to a god- head. In either case we cannot but consider these personages as of a higher rank than sim- ple attendants, a supposition which is confirmed by their stature, the Brahmanical thread, and the additional circumstance of their being sup- ported by inferiors.

The representation contained in the following plate tab. It portrays Siva or Mahadeva p, as an hermaphrodite with one breast, a circumstance which has some- times caused the figure to be mistaken for an Amazon. It is from this that he is called " Ar- thanari," Arddkanarisathe thesis writer% 27s dream, half female. On the right Siva himself again appears as a man, with his usual attribute, a trident, the symbol of his dominion over the upper, middle, and nether world.

Behind, or rather above him, is an intended representation of Brahma, with four heads, of which however only three are visible ; but the four accompany- ing swans the bird that carries him through the heavens, leave no doubt of the real num- ber. On the other side, opposite to Brahma, is Kartikeya, the son of Siva and Parvati, the god of war, with sword in hand, sitting upon his conquered enemy, the giant Kaymughusura. The figures hovering above them in the attitude of adoration, are a choir of Devas and Devanis male and female geniiwho com- pose Siva's court in his palace of Kailasa.

In the next plate tab. He is adorned with the Brahmanical thread, and is supported on thesis writer s dream dwarf, who carries a fly-flap. At his side stands his con- sort Parvati, supported also on a dwarf. The principal figure in the lower part of tab. It should, as the similarity of the head orna- ments, the four arms, and the Brahmanical thread make sufficiently probable, be another representation of Siva.

Under this supposition the female figure sitting near him would also be his wife. The two chobdars on each side, both ornamented with the Brahman's thread, denote in either case the presence of two great deities, upon whom they are attendant.

Their inferiority of condition is expressed in this, as well as in the foregoing plates, by thesmallness of their stature. If this explanation be cor- rect, the figures before us become very remark- able, inasmuch as the wife of Vishnu is here represented in the capacity of a menial attend- ' See F. PauliDo's description of the bronze stature in the Borgian Mu- senm, Syst. The figure of a man with two arms, in the -upper part of the same plate, is without any attributes, unless we suppose what he is repre- sented to be sitting upon is a lotus flower.

But this peculiarity is so common thesis writer s dream many other Hindu deities, that we can draw no certain conclusion from the fact supposing it be true. The representation given in the following plate tab. In the human figure which occurs here also, though three arms with the accompanying at- tributes are lost, there can be no mistaking the presence of Siva. Every thing favours the conclusion, that the subject before us represents a passage taken from the history of that god - it is in short Siva, receiving his consort Parvati from the hands of Kamadeva the god of love, into his paradise of Kailasa.

The tedious hin- c oa drances which had opposed this union so ne- cessary to the welfare of the universe were at length happily surmounted. This adventure is here portrayed in all that simplicity of style which seems so peculiar to the ancient Hindu " Laogles, vol. Other deities, among whom the four-headed Brahma is conspicuous, assist at the ceremony ; an attendant is bringing in a covered dish, probably in allusion to the mar- riage feast; a numerous band of Devas and Devanis are employed in keeping holy day.

The frightful object represented in plate 10, is easy enough to comprehend. It is Siva again, but as the Avenger and Destroyer; he is therefore armed with all the attributes of terror - the sword, the infant marked out for slaughter, the serpent, and the timbrel : instead of the Brahmanical thread he wears a collar of sculls.

The same subject, but furnished with a greater number of attributes, is observable in a painting in the Borgian museum, described by father Paulino '. My intention in offering the above remarks, being less to give a circumstantial account of these pieces of sculpture than to note down the prevailing idea in each representation, I shall therefore omit the last plate in Niebuhr's book, of which I need only observe in passing, that it appears to describe some scenes in the history of Siva.

Secondly : It is no less certain that the grotto of Elephanta is dedicated to Siva. All the or- namental designs represented on the walls either exhibit him in person, or have a manifest allusion to his history ; the prevailing idea is to describe him seated on a throne in his palace of Kailasa, surrounded by his court of Devas and Devanis.

The chief symbol of Siva is the Lingam, or Phallus, the organ of generation, which is represented in all the modem temples dedicated to him; and is itself an object of religious veneration. It is also found here, in the background of the principal temple'. The obscenity displayed on the walls surpasses every thing that the most depraved European fancy could possibly imagine '. It has however been remarked by many writers, that no conclusion can properly be drawn from this peculiarity, respecting the morals of the nation itself.

Thirdly : It is also thesis writer% 27s dream clear that the worship of Siva and the sect of his followers, were already in high repute in India at the early period when these rock temples were ex- cavated.

Of Vishnu and his worshippers, how- ever, to the best of my knowledge, I can find no trace whatever. Yet under all circumstan- ces it would be too precipitate, to infer that his sect was not at that time in existence. And fourthly. If it be asked to what era ' Gough's Monuments, etc. We can only plead the want of accurate chronological data, for suggesting a satisfactory answer.

The Greeks, it is true, under Alexander and his followers, be- came acquainted with India, but they saw only the northern parts of it, the plains lying be- tween the Indus and the Ganges, where struc- tures of the above description are not to be found.

Free printable homework sheets for 5 grade is therefore only from the monuments themselves that we can draw any conclusions respecting their antiquity, and in them indeed every thing concurs to render the fact certain.

Their vast extent and perfect execution of de- tail, as well as the nature of the undertaking it- self, sufficiently show that it must Have re- quired a great number of years to bring them to completion.

Thesis writer% 27s dream

Is it credible that all recollection of such a laborious enterprise as this should have been totally lost, were it not dated from very remote antiquity? In this grotto was performed the ordeal by water. Blumenbach, together "with a penknife made of Wudz, the first instrument of that material manufactured at Lon- don. How many hondred years must have been necessary to produce such an effect upon a rock so hard I In fine, the style itself also of these ingenious works would seem to attest their extreme age: characterized as they are by great simplicity, united with consummate perfection.

The figures of the gods appear all of thesis writer% 27s dream naked, but at the same time carefully furnished with their respective ornaments, their headdress, necklaces, earrings, girdles, together with their proper attributes.

There is here no appearance of that excessive surcharge of ap- parel with which the modern Hindus disfigure their idols. Grotto temples of a similar description but of larger size are found in the neighbouring is- land of Salsette, which is also opposite to Bom- bay.

Of these we possess a description, with a ground-plan and a view, but of the sculp- tures by no means such correct drawings as those of Elephanta, for Niebuhr thesis writer s dream not visit Salsette. Anquetil du Perron in the preface to his edition of the Zend-Avesta S has given a more accurate description, but the subjoined ground- plan is not very intelligible.

A more particular ' Gemelli Caneri, Voyage autour du Monde, torn, iii, p.

Thesis writer s dream

It contains merely a deicription without either plan or drawing. The above publications are suffi- cient to convey some general idea of the monu- ments, but of the numerous sculptures they give only a few specimens.

The lofty mountain, which this island contains, is also composed of a species of rock equally hard, but which nevertheless is exca- vated in every direction. The grand pagoda is vaulted, and extends over an area of forty paces in breadth and one hundred in length : exclu- sive of the four columns at the entrance, thirty are enumerated inside, of which eighteen have their capitals formed of elephants; the rest are merely of an hexagonal shape, which would in- duce a supposition that they still remain un- finished.

At the end of the pagoda, which ter- minates in a circular form, is a kind of cupola. Izxvii - Izxxii. The Great Pagoda is only so termed by way of distinction, for there are two others scarcely inferior in size, which are even furnished with several stories, one over the other ; and between and round about these there is an innumerable quantity of smaller chapels. Every part is or- namented with sculpture, and the apartments, tanks, open courts, are all hewn out of the rock.

The ef- fects of the weather on the sculptures here, too, beauty essay of beauty striking evidence of the many hun- dred years that must have elapsed in order to reduce them to their present state of decay.

But a distinguishing feature in the temple grottos of Salsette are the inscriptions, which we meet with on the walls. Of these Anquetil du Perron has enumerated twenty 'two, speci- mens of which he has subjoined '". We here see manifold representations of this god, who is easy to be known by his woolly hair, long ears, and sitting cross-legged ''.

His principal statue is surrounded with small re- liefs, describing probably some scenes taken from his mythological history, in one of which is represented the forepart of a vessel filled with strangers; but these sculptures are, in general, too diminutive in size to enable us to offer any illustrations of their meaning. On the other hand there is no doubt that of the smaller temples, the one called Monpeser is dedicated to Siva, as that of Jegvasary is to Indra.

It is also worthy of remark that they contain no allusion to the history of Vishnu: on B Langles, plate Ixzz. The drawings we have of this piece of antiquity are much superior to those of any other. Considered with regard to the complete finish of its details, the temple of Carli appears to occupy the first place of all, though in point of extent it is inferior to that of Salsette. Plate yiii, an interior view of the grotto. Plate iz, plan of the same. There are many grottos at Carli, of which the largest only has been delineated.

The interior appears altogether like that of Salsette. The pillars are supported by elephants, on which male and female figures are sitting. Underneath the vaulted roof is an arcade of timber, no doubt of modem construction. There are no sculp- tures in the interior, but only on the walls of the portico, partly representing elephants, and partly figures of men with two sexes.

The statue of Buddha is observable in many parts, sometimes in a sitting posture, after the Indian fashion, at others in an upright position, and always surrounded with worshippers. All these iuscriptions have been copied bj Lord Valentia. The largest structure of this descripton is found in the southern part of the island, in about T N.

These rock temples, according to Davy's opinion, are the largest, the most perfect and ancient, as well as the best preserved in the whole island.

They are con- tained in a grotto, much less indebted tp art than to nature for its formation, before which a wall extends of four hundred feet in length.

The dimensions of the largest temple are one hundred and ninety feet by ninety, and forty- five in height. The smaller one is ninety feet long and seventy broad ; the third is seventy- five feet in length and only twenty-one in breadth. They are all dedicated to Buddha, whose religion is still preserved exclusively in Ceylon, and perhaps there in its greatest pu- rity.

The principal temple contains a recum- bent statue of Buddha, thirty feet long, of co- lossal size, as he is generally represented ; we also meet with numerous smaller statues of this god, or his worshippers, in different attitudes ; of which fifty-three have been counted, repre- senting probably persons of his suite.

It is however in the heart of India, and in the midst of the Ghaut- Range, that buildings of the above description are found, which far surpass all " John Davy, AccouDt of the Interior of Ceylon, London,p. These are the ce- lebrated grottos of Ellora, in the neighbour- hood of Dewgur and Aurengabad"".

The latter visited the grottos in person, accompanied by two Brahmans, thesis content writer s dream whose veracity must de- pend the correctness of the explanations given of the sculptures, of which however he has sub- joined no engravings.

Du Perron has certainly the merit of having supplied a tolerably de- tailed account of these monuments, most of which he appears to have seen, and noted down the observations of the Brahmans on the subject: nevertheless, without presuming to question the fidelity of these latter, few descrip- tions, accurate as they may be, are alone ca- pable of conveying any just idea of the subject.

It might be owing to chance, bat it is worthy of remark, that Ellora is situate exactly in the middle be- tween the northern boundary of India and Cape Comorin. Its distance from the coast is somewhat greater on the east than on the west side. The expression, nevertheless, that it is in the centre of India, is suiBcientty cor- rect, whether that was the effect of design or mere chance.

Prelim, p. The vignette title page of this volume contains a view of Jagannatha, after plate zxxv. In this range is found a series of grotto temples, some of two and even three stories in height, partly in juxta- position with each other, and partly separated by intervals, which in their turn are filled with a number of smaller temples ; and the whole ornamented with innumerable reliefs, many of which have suffered from the effects of time, and not a few from the hands of wan- ton violence.

There are also many other temple grottos here, which are little if in- deed any thing inferior to that of Kailasa; that of Indra and his consort Indrani contains in like manner a pagoda of the form just de- scribed, and in point of richness of architecture and decoration is fully equal to it.

The two divinities, both surrounded with worshippers, are represented as sitting, Indra on a recum- bent elephant, Indrani on a lion: all these figures are of colossal dimensions.

The grotto known by the name of Dumar-Leyna, and con- secrated to Siva and his wife Parvati, is not a whit less remarkable and surprising. Among all the Hindu divinities, in whose honour temples have been erected, there is hardly one who does not appear to have pos- sessed at some time or other his respective sanctuary at EUora; and in fact we might justly consider the gallery in rear of the great temple of Kailasa, as a perfect specimen of an Hindu Pantheon.

The names of not less than forty-three deities of one sort or other have been there enumerated by M alet. The age of the grottos at EUora is as difficult to determine on just historical principles as those at Elephanta.

On the other hand, a certain Mahomedan professes to have heard from some learned pundit, whose name by the way thesis writer s dream has for- gotten, that these temples, together with the fortress of Deogur, now called Dawlatabad, were the work of one Rajah II, who reigned r Asiatic Res. The grotto here given is vaulted like that of Carli, but the arcades are of stone.

Such testi- mony as this, however, which rests on no cer- tain foundation, must appear in the eyes of a critical enquirer, as little satisfactory and con- vincing as the former.

Indeed, the single cir- cumstance that all these stupendous buildings could have been completed by one rajah in- volves an absolute contradiction ; it is very pos- sible the fortress might have been built at the time specified, and this supposition would at least furnish some ground for the general re- port.

It follows, therefore, that in the present state of the question, we can only ascertain the age of the monuments at EUora, by considering them either separately or in comparison with others already described ; and in conducting this examination, I believe I can fairly secure certain conclusions which are too important to be withheld from the reader.

In the first place. Every thing in these grotto buildings wears an Indian character, no foreign admixture whether of mythology or art is perceptible.

They must therefore belong to a period of time when the people freely left to themselves, and under no foreign yoke, were able to lead what sort of life they pleased, and were their own masters in every thing. There is, nevertheless, in their architecture, a certain gradation which it is impossible thesis content writer s dream mistake; while at Salsette and Elephanta all is simpli- city in the extreme, and the art of sculpture appears yet in its infancy ; so on the other hand, 44 INDIANS.

The comple- tion of these surprising works must, according to our calculations, have required some hun- dreds of years, but we must also allow a space of time nearly equal in duration to that epoch, in which EUora, situate in the middle of India, and near to Deogur, i. In the rock temples of Salsette and Ele- phanta, as well as Carli, the prevailing creed appears to have been that of Siva or Mahadeva, and next to this, even that of Buddha. They must consequently be prior in point of time to the expulsion of the latter from India.

On thesis writer% 27s dream other hand, the temples of Ellora betray not the slightest symptom of any connection with the worship of Buddha: whether it directly follows, therefore, that at the period of their excavation, the Buddhists were already driven from the Indian continent, I cannot certainly venture to determine : this however seems unquestionable, that at the above period the two still existing sects of Siva and Vishnu were then already CHAP.

It appears highly probable that, at the time when these temples, or at least those of Ellora were constructed, the Hindu system of mythology had already attained its full and perfect state of development ; as on the walls of these grottos we find not merely the several deities by themselves, but represented also with their companions, relations, and attendants in general, and indeed to much greater extent and perfection at Ellora than any where else ; from which we may safely argue for a more recent foundation in the case of the latter temples, in- dependent of the great increase of probability which the argument derives from the following very remarkable circumstance.

We observe on the walls of Ellora sculptured representa- tions of great epic subjects, which appear be- yond a doubt to have been furnished by those famous Hindu heroic poems the Ramayana and the M ahabharata, of which we shall have occasion to speak hereafter. The armies engaged consist mostly of foot soldiers; some are riding upon ele- phants, others in chariots, but none on horses.

The plan upon which these great temple grottos are constructed is usually simple, but at the same time always grand in conception. The first entrance is through a vestibule, sup- ported by several rows of pillars ; this leads frequently by a series of steps into the thesis content writer s dream portico, which is covered in some instances with a flat roof; in others it is vaulted".

For the reprwentation on the walls is copied without Tariatioii from the Rama- yana. Lord Valentia's conjecture Cvol. This plan however is not always observed. There is one grotto at Elephanta which is supported by three rows of pillars ; and another at Salsette has as many as six. The sanctuary of these temples, which is frequently nothing more than a chapel furnished with a Lingam, is generally found at the extremity : in the large grottos at EUora it is a perfect temple of itself, hewn out of a portion of the solid rock which has been suf- fered to remain for that purpose.

On the right and left are chambers cut out of the rock, apparently designed for the reception of priests belonging to the sanctuary ; and in some cases a gallery, supported on pillars, runs round the whole extent, the walls of which are orna- mented with exquisite taste and skill. The number and extent of these struc- tures, particularly at EUora, appear to show sufficiently the object contemplated in their erection.

They must have been designed as a sanctuary and habitation, not only for the prin- cipal deity, but also for his family and attend- ant worshippers. Hence arose the necessity of providing for them also, and erecting for each his separate place of worship. The vast building of this description is found at Ellora consecrated to Visvakanna an Pendant of Vishnu. Asiatic Kes. The idea of employing colonnades in the cases before us, arose from the obvious neces- sity of leaving pillars to support the roof of the excavated rock, and of course their form would not in the nature of things be so slender as the Grecian column.

It is not without an involuntary shudder that we pass the threshold of these spacious grottos, and compare the weight of the ponderous roof with the apparent slenderness and inadequacy of its support ; an admirable and ingenious effect, which must have required no ordinary share of abilities in the architect to calculate and deter- mine! In the general form and mode of deco- rating these columns, judging by the few de- signs we have of them, we meet with great va- n See Gougli, tab.

The length of the shaft, in comparison with thesis content writer s dream diameter, is also subject to considerable varia- tion; in some cases, as for instance, in the temple of Kennery at Salsette, the pillars are furnished with capitals apparently suffered to remain in order to confer additional strength. But an accurate and character- istic description of these details, which however would be scarcely intelligible without illustra- tive designs, we must leave to the study of professed architects : yet after mentioning the colonnades and pillars, we ought not to omit noticing the obelisks, which to the buy speech outline of our knowledge are only met with in the grottos of EUora.

In the drawing of Langles, plate xxxvii, copied from the work of the Daniells, this monnment has almost entirely lost the form of an obelisk. P Asiatic Res. The Hindu sculpture, like that of the Egyptians, appears to have proceeded from relief; but owing to the small number of de- signed specimens at present in our possession, it is impossible to deliver any correct opinion of its rise and progress.

The art of sculpturing in very low relief seems to have remained foreign to the usual practice of Hindu artists; probably because, in these temples they were obliged to make their calculations with reference to the general effect which could be produced by the whole, when viewed from a certain distance.

Is it probable that they are pro- fessional storytellers'! According to Hindu mythology, the rajah Vicra- maditya used to have forty -two of these little creatures standing round his throne. Polier, vol. Sir Stamford Raffles was informed at Java, that similar headdresses were worn by native hermits. History of Java, vol. The climate of India, which is not so dry as that of Egypt, would appear to be less favourable to the preser- vation of fresco paintings ; we nevertheless find in thesis writer% 27s dream temples at Ellora universal proof of the contrary.

From working in relief, the art of sculpture would insensibly proceed to statuary; several of the reliefs themselves having been formed in such high prominence that they are merely attached to the walls by a portion of learn to math backs.

A colossal character was also applied to their statues, not merely when they represented divinities, but likewise, and indeed in an especial manner, to animals, such as elephants, bulls, lions, etc. XV ancient India ; the means at our present dis- posal are far too inadequate to effect such a laborious undertaking ; and probably they will continue to be so.

At the same time, however, while it carries us back into remote ages, and among a distant people, who thesis writer s dream attained a high and peculiar degree of civilization, the an- cient literature of the Hindus discloses to our sight a new world, which is so much the more captivating, as it is entirely different from our own.

I would ask, is the addition thereby made to the general history of mankind of no more value than a series of chronological tables, containing only a dry nomenclature of princes and dates? Our present knowledge of Sanscrit literature may be said to stand nearly on the same foot- ing as that of the Greek did in Italy towards the end of the fifteenth century. The inestim- able benefits which the study of the latter has conferred upon the whole western world, are too well known ; and though it were presump- tuous, perhaps, to expect the same important consequences from the study of the Sanscrit, yet we are not without the wish and the ex- pectation, that it may also flourish and produce its own peculiar fruits.

July 27, Strabo, lib. The historians who have enquired into the religion and learning of the East, have almost always been obliged to revert to India for in- formation in their researches. That distant country however, has at no former period at- tracted the attention of Europeans, in thesis writer% 27s dream particulars, so much as at the present day.

From the time that it became subject to the English, it has excited their regard, not more by its productions than by its arts and litera- ture : and the learned of Great Britian now flatter themselves, that they have at length B 2 INDIANS.

These enquiries have given rise to corresponding ones in Germany; the number of students in this department of letters has greatly increased ; the sacred language of In- dia together with its literature and poetry have been introduced to our acquaintance ; and edi- tions of Sanscrit works printed in the original character have issued from the German press, as well as from those on the banks of the Ganges and the Thames. Of the writings of the above Society contained in the Asiatic Researches I have only consulted the first twelve vols.

The essays of Sir. Jones may be found also in his Works, vol. What do we really know of the ancient learning of this people? Of their religion, their poetry, their arts, their political institutions, or of their com- merce, and their influence upon other nations?

From what sources do we derive this know- ledge? And to what extent are these sources themselves thesis writer% 27s dream and authentic, or the reverse? Thesis content writer s dream must satisfy ourselves upon all these points before we can even pronounce upon our ability to compose an historical sketch of that olden time when the Hindus, as yet their own mas- ters, and not bowed down under the voke of a foreign conqueror, had free and unfenered li- berty of developing the national character.

Such an enquiry as this however, is one of the most difficult for many reasons. First of all the very abundance of materials itself is one obstacle. And again, notwithstanding the vast accumulation of facts, we are perpetually meeting with great and important chasms.

Add to this the still greater number of difficul- ties naturally inherent in the subject, which im- pede the progress of investigation, and which can only be removed by an intimate acquaint- ance with the spirit and ways of thinking pecu- liar to Eastern nations ; it is by such means alone that we can hope to arrive at more ample and satisfactory conclusions. It is true we have one great advantage here which does not assist our researches into most other nations of antiquity - it is the fact that the Hindus still exist as a people.

Completely separate by their customs and religion from the rest of the world, and disdaining to make converts, they have thereby preserved their na- tional existence. Even the foreigners who have settled among them, and what is still more surprising their very conquerors, remain altogether as distinct and isolated as they would be in their own native land.

It is this exclusive character which renders communica- tion with them so difficult, and checks all our enquiries. And though it is very probable they would not under all circumstances main- tain the same reserve towards a foreigner, who knew how to insinuate himself into their confi- CHAP.

The Hindu passes as it were a kind of spirit- ual existence in ages long since gone by. The present is to him an age of profound corruption, and according to his legendary notions a still more deeply corrupted era is to ensue, until the restoration thesis writer s dream a former happy state shall introduce a new and better order of things.

But this present age, truly so named by us, is no other than what an European writer would generally term "The Age of History. His soul discovers more abundant nourishment in the contemplation of those far distant periods of time when the mighty Vishnu, disguised as Rama, made war on the Demons, or when, in the character of Thesis writer% 27s dream, he became the re- storer of a better order of things. His Hindu teacher had falsified the names of places occurring in the MSS.

What could reconcile him to such studies as those to which we are indebted for our critical history of his country- men? To no purpose should we search for a native of this description, and yet, nevertheless, to the Hindu, such as he is, does the European apply for information. The grand object, therefore, of a writer who would describe this singular people, would be to make himself a Hindu among Hindus, without at the same time divesting himself of the character of an Euro- pean.

Whoever has satisfied himself of the difficulty of fulfilling these requisites, must ne- cessarily in proportion as he distrusts his own abilities, be obliged to make larger claims upon the impartial judgment of his readers. Even though he had in person visited the banks of the Jumna and the Ganges, and received in- struction at the feet of the most learned pundits of Benares, yet he must still allow the impossi- bility of fully complying with the pre-requisites to his task.

How then must the difficulties be increased to one who living under a dreary northern sky, has never beheld the gorgeous magnificence of an Indian climate ; who, out of all its rich literature is acquainted with but a few detached fragments ; and who, in order to obtain even this scanty knowledge, must con- tent himself with translations, themselves pro- bably imperfect and incorrect? We have however thanks to the preparatory CHAP. It will therefore be our principal task to determine the correctness and extent of our sphere of vision, as well as to ascertain the degree of clearness with which the several ob- jects strike our view.

Thesis content writer s dream is indeed always a considerable point gained, when we are able to distinguish what we know from that which we are ignorant of. Thesis writer s dream day perhaps may come when the mists which now intercept our obser- vation will be dissipated ; should that 'ever be the case, some later artist may then fill up this imperfect outline with a more sure and success- ful hand.

Incomplete and defective as it now is, it will nevertheless, till that time have a cer- tain value, and will perhaps suffer but little in the estimation of my successor even should he pass a correct and impartial judgment on its merits. Since then the object of our enquiries has been thus determined, it follows, of course, that we have here nothing to do with laying down systems of Hindu religion and philosophy by themselves, nor with starting hypotheses, as for example, touching the earliest connection of In- dia with Egypt, or the transmission of Hindu civilization into the Western World, etc.

The general opinion of ancient as well as of modern times is unanimous in considering the Hindus as one of the earliest, if not in fact the oldest, civilized nation in the world.

Or, have not we also good reasons for being incredulous in an equal ratio to their own exaggerated accounts of their antiquity, particularly as it appears more and more evident that India is the last place to look to for any thing like authentic systems of chronology? To this question however we shall only be able to furnish a decisive answer in the sequel of our enquiry.

Under the the title of high antiquity we generally compre- hend that space of time which extends to the tenth century before the Christian era. The historic records of no other people, if we except the Jews, reaches beyond this point. All that goes further back is concealed beneath the cloak of tradition and hieroglyphics, and as long as we can draw no broad line of demarca- tion in the case, the definition just laid down will generally be found sufficient for our pur- pose. Whether the civilization of India reaches back to one thousand years before the Christian era, as is pretty certain, or even to two, which is not improbable, can never be a question al- together devoid of interest.

But it is equally certain that at the precise point where the thread of history and the connection of its de- tails is broken off, the interest attached to accu- rate chronological data ends likewise ; and all judicious readers must be unanimous in allow- ing that it is much better to confess thesis writer% 27s dream, than boldly to substitute conjecture in the place of knowledge : at the same time however a writer must have free permission to advance probabilities and even, occasionally, conjectures, as such.

The first of these authorities has already, in great measure, been weighed and examined in our work on Persian India, and the writers themselves are too well known to require any critical notice in this place. I shall content myself therefore with repeating the general conclusion deduced from their histories, that, at the period of the Macedonian invasion, nearly three hundred and fifty years before the commencement of our era, the Hindus already appeared to have reached the same degree of refinement and civilization both in public and private life, which they subsequently maintain- ed : we are therefore fully authorized in the conclusion, that this civilized state must then have been several hundred years in existence, and even extend as far back as that ''high an- tiquity" above defined.

The present Enquiry then will be limited solely to a consideration of Indian sources of information : these are of a twofold description ; Monuments and Writings.

Each kind will therefore require a separate ex- amination. J The monuments still remaining of Indian architecture, considered with a view towards furthering our knowledge of the people, are scarcely less important than those on the banks of the Nile are for a similar purpose with re- spect to the Egyptians. Who has not, even though he may be ignorant of all else, at least CHAP. These serve to confirm the remark, that the more India is examined, the greater variety of illustrative subject-matter, in this point of view, presents itself to the enquirer.

But before we can regard Hindu monuments as authentic sources of information thesis writer s dream the anti- quities of India, we ought previously to ascer- tain the extent of our acquaintance with them ; - how far in connection with this object they have already been examined - to what degree they are capable of further illustration? And moreover, what are the conclusions, particularly with respect to the antiquity of the nation, which we are enabled to deduce from our pre- sent knowledge of them?

Our first endeavour then will be to furnish a satisfactory reply to each of these questions. We are indebted for almost all that we know of Indian monuments to the labours of English- men. Neither the Portuguese nor the Dutch, nor yet the French, have employed their minds on the subject, if we except a few occasional remarks occuring in books of Travels.

But partial notices and even descriptions in detail, explain but little when unaccompanied with accurate engravings. The English have pre- sented us with several magnificent works on India, but they have for the most part con- sidered the subject in a very different light. The great work of Hodges is composed with this design'. The two volumes of copperplate il- lustrations contain only two pages descriptive of ancient Hindu temples, the pagodas, namely, of Deogur and Tanjore.

In a work indeed of this thesis content writer s dream every thing is calculated more for ef- fect than to give a true and correct representa- tion; and moreover the whole manner of Hodges is very little adapted to convey an adequate idea of Hindu architecture, as he gives nothing but sketches and views. The name of Niebuhr is a sufficient guarantee for the cor- rectness of his copies, and we are indebted to that enterprising traveller for a ground-plan of the rock temple, a design of one of the pillars with its dimensions, and seven plates represent- ing the bas-reliefs on the walls.

Other woiks, such as Pennant's Views of Hindostan, which contain no designs of ancient monuments, I shall pass over in silence. A large field still remains open to future draughtsmen. Nevertheless Niebuhr's attempt was so much the more meritorious in that it appears to have given the first impulse to British thesis writer% 27s dream and acti- vity. It contains merely a notice of the writers who have spoken about Salsette and Elephanta; Niebuhr is translated word for word, and the accompany- ing plates are all copied from his advertising research paper : only one new engraving is added, containing ground- plans of the rock temples of Salsette and some others, together with a view of that island, and two or three inscriptions.

Our knowledge of Indian monuments is not therefore much in- creased by this meagre compilation. We are indebted for a more accurate acquaintance with the temples of Salsette to Lord Valentia. The foundation of the Asiatic Society at Cal- cutta about this time, under the auspices of Sir William Jones, led us to expect fresh informa- tion respecting the monuments of India. Gough, London, Thankfully as we acknowledge even these, our gratitude would have been much greater had we been favoured with more drawings, and on a larger scale.

Their plan comprised the whole extent of Indian antiquities, and even the buildings of modern time, particularly those of the Mogul period. But even this work, if I may be allowed to judge from what I have seen of it, appears more calculated to charm the eye than inform the understanding.

Crawfurd's Sketches of Hindostan, and others. Besides, the edi- tors of this publication were artists and not scholars ; neither are thesis writer% 27s dream monuments there de- signed classed according to time and nation: and we feel the want of a learned commentary to give us the previous instructions under what era to arrange them.

It is impossible there- fore with no better materials than these to com- pose a history of Hindu architecture. The work of Mons. With thesis content writer s dream, however, to the accuracy of the monuments of Elephanta designed by them both, it appears to me upon comparison that the preference is due to Niebuhr. The scale too of the designs, 1 think, is not sufficiently large to convey a just idea of the original. The great in architecture can only be represented by corresponding great- ness in the delineation.

At the same time the work above mentioned proves, in a striking manner, that we have as yet scarcely passed even the threshold of a perfect acquaintance with Hindu monuments.

Langles, Paris, Since this period, a considerable number of Travels and other publications con- nected with India have made their appearance; but I have not been able to meet with any re- markable illustrations, or descriptions of monu- ments contained therein.

Fortunate indeed would it have been for our labours, had these interesting relics employed the hand and exercised the ingenuity of a Wood or a Stuart! Every opinion delivered upon architectural remains, must always be hazardous and uncertain when we have no plans on an accurate and extensive scale to guide our judgment. But nevertheless, we cannot still be said to grope our way in perfect darkness. The works above mentioned have contributed a good deal towards showing the path, and have led to conclusions which are of the greatest importance to a correct knowledge of Indian antiquities.

They have all a common connection with religious purposes, being dedicated as well to the worship of Vishnu and Siva or Mahadeva, whose followers exist to this day, as also to Buddha, whose sect, long since expelled this part of India, still sub- sists universally in Ceylon and the Ultra-Gan- getic continent.

I enumerate the above three classes in the order which appears to agree also with the date of their construction. If this be but a conjecture, there certainly is every appearance of probability in its favour, for it can scarcely be maintained that a people, who had already been accustomed to build in the open air, should subsequently begin to lodge their divinities in underground temples ; on the contrary it appears more natural on the very face of things that excavation of the rock should have preceded its exterior embellishment.

Whichever be the real state of the case we must necessarily divide them into three classes, of each of which we will now attempt to give a correct view in succession. Al- though in the plains of Bengal and the Punjab, the nature of the ground does not admit of their construction, yet, on the other hand, the whole of the peninsula on this side of the Ganges is traversed by a rocky chain of Ghauts, at present in great measure unexplored.

The nature of this country itself would seem to suggest the conveni- ence of underground habitations, where neither the vertical rays of the sun, nor the impetuous torrents of the rainy season could penetrate. It was a religious feeling which transformed a hut into a temple.

But an ex- cavation of the rock would seem just so much the more obvious to him as it favoured his de- sign of rendering these monuments of his reli- I Even the naked Hottentots are in the habit of tketching rude designs on the walls of their huts.

But what a wide interval is there between an African kraal and a Hindu rock temple! An authentic account of the rise and progress of grotto architecture were sufficient materials at handwould doubt- less lead to new and interesting conclusions respecting the general histoiy of mankind. A design which is appa- rent in the monuments themselves ; and which is exhibited still more strongly among all na- tions in proportion as we go further back into their antiquity.

This, together with the adjacent buildings, is hewn solely out of the rock, and forms consequently a perfect grotto. Langles, vol ii, p. In front of the principal entrance facing the north, and therefore sheltered from the sun, is an artificial terrace, from which there is an extensive prospect of the ocean, and on each side is an additional opening to admit the fresh breeze.

The rock which serves for a roof to this grotto is supported by twenty-six pillars and sixteen pilasters : the latter occupy half of each side, and are left by the architect in the original unhewn state of the material. The chambers or chapels the american dream essay hook are not quite so high, but are finished in precisely the same manner.

The walls, without inscriptions, but formerly covered with a beautiful stucco, are still ornamented with reliefs, some of which are so highly prominent that the figures are merely attached to the rock by their backs; there is no doubt therefore that they are as old as the temple itself.

Similar carving is observ- able on the walls of other rock temples, and the same figures present themselves : the whole are consequently borrowed from the same my- thology. The question is, whether from that of the modern Hindus, and whether these mo- numents belong to the same people, or are they the production of an earlier race which has now disappeared, together with its religion? I shall endea- vour, therefore, in following the order of Nie- buhr's drawings, to give some illustration of the subject; premising, however, that where any thing is doubtful I shall choose rather to confess thesis writer s dream own ignorance than advance idle conjecture.

We here see directly in the entrance of the temple a colossal bust, thirteen feet high, with three heads and four arms.

It represents, as he has rightly observed, the Hindu Trinity "", Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva or Mahadeva, the three Devas, or personifications of the godhead.

The middle one is Brahma, that on the right Vishnu, the left with a serpent and mustachios is Siva. The same mytho- logical idea still remains perfectly unaltered among the modem Hindus. There is an ac- curate representation of these three figures, with their proper attributes, to be seen in an idol of bronze in the Borgian museum, which has already been copied and described by father Paulino I".

It is uncertain what characters the large human figures represent which are on each side of the bust ; probably they are chob- dars, or attendants, usually assigned to di- vinities and great men as buy a paper online of their retinue.

Paulino, Systema Brafamanicum, p. P Syst. CHAP, u The one on the right hand, supported by a dwarf, bears on his left shoulder a cord, which is the usual distinction of a Brahman, but in many of the reliefs is as often applied to a god- head. In either case we cannot but consider these personages as of a higher rank than sim- ple attendants, a supposition which is confirmed by their stature, the Brahmanical thread, and the additional circumstance of their being sup- ported by inferiors.

The representation contained in the following plate tab. It portrays Siva or Mahadeva p, as an hermaphrodite with one breast, a circumstance which has some- times caused the figure to be mistaken for an Amazon. It is from this that he is called " Ar- thanari," Arddkanarisathe lord, half female. On the right Siva himself again appears as a man, with his usual attribute, a trident, the symbol of his dominion over the upper, middle, and nether world.

Behind, or rather above him, is an intended representation of Brahma, with four heads, of which however only three are visible ; but the four accompany- ing swans the bird that carries him through the heavens, leave no doubt of the real num- ber.

On the other side, opposite to Brahma, is Kartikeya, the son of Siva and Parvati, the god of war, with sword in hand, sitting upon his conquered enemy, the giant Kaymughusura. The figures hovering above them in the attitude of adoration, are a choir of Devas and Devanis male and female geniiwho com- pose Siva's court in his palace of Kailasa.

In the next plate tab. He is adorned with the Brahmanical thread, and is supported thesis writer s dream a dwarf, who carries a fly-flap. At his side stands his con- sort Parvati, supported also on a dwarf. The principal figure in the lower part of tab. It should, as the similarity of the head orna- ments, the four arms, and the Brahmanical thread make sufficiently probable, be another representation of Siva. Under this supposition the female figure sitting near him would also be his wife.

The two chobdars on each side, both ornamented with the Brahman's thread, denote in either case the presence of two great deities, upon whom they are attendant. Their inferiority of condition is expressed in this, as well as in the foregoing plates, by thesmallness of their stature. If this explanation be cor- rect, the figures before us become very remark- able, inasmuch as the wife of Vishnu is here represented in the capacity of a menial attend- ' See F.

PauliDo's description of the bronze stature in the Borgian Mu- senm, Syst. The figure of a man with two arms, in the -upper part of the same plate, is without essay on high school dropout attributes, unless we suppose what he is repre- sented to be sitting upon is a lotus flower.

But this peculiarity is so common to many other Hindu deities, that we can draw no certain conclusion from the fact supposing it be true. The representation given in the following plate tab. In the human figure which occurs here also, though three arms with the accompanying at- tributes are lost, there can be no mistaking the presence of Siva.

Every thing favours the conclusion, that the subject before us represents a passage taken from the history of that god - it is in short Siva, receiving his consort Parvati from the hands of Kamadeva the god of love, into his paradise of Kailasa.

The tedious hin- c oa drances which had opposed this union so ne- cessary to the welfare of the universe were at length happily surmounted. This adventure is here portrayed in all that simplicity of style which seems so peculiar to the ancient Hindu " Laogles, vol. Other deities, among whom the four-headed Brahma is conspicuous, assist at the ceremony ; an attendant is bringing in a covered dish, probably in allusion to the mar- riage feast; a numerous band of Devas and Devanis are employed in keeping holy day.

The frightful object represented in plate 10, is easy enough to comprehend. It is Siva again, but as the Avenger and Destroyer; he is therefore armed with all the attributes of terror - the sword, the infant marked out for slaughter, the serpent, and the timbrel : instead of the Brahmanical thread he wears a collar of sculls. The same subject, but furnished with a greater number of attributes, is observable in a painting in the Borgian museum, described by father Paulino '.

My intention in offering the above remarks, being less to give a circumstantial account of these pieces of sculpture than to note down the prevailing idea in each representation, I shall therefore omit the last plate in Niebuhr's book, of which I need only observe in passing, that it appears to describe some scenes in the history of Siva.

Secondly : It is no less certain that the grotto of Elephanta is dedicated to Siva. All the or- namental designs represented on the walls either exhibit him thesis writer s dream person, or have a manifest allusion to his history ; the prevailing idea is to describe him seated on a throne in his palace of Kailasa, surrounded by his court of Devas and Devanis.

The chief symbol of Siva is the Lingam, or Phallus, the organ of generation, which is represented in all the modem temples dedicated to him; and is itself an object of religious veneration.

Thesis content writer s dream

It is also found here, in the background of the principal temple'. The obscenity displayed on the walls surpasses every thing that the most depraved European fancy could possibly imagine '. It has however been remarked by many writers, that no conclusion can properly be drawn from this peculiarity, respecting the morals of the nation itself. Thirdly : It is also sufiBiciently clear that the worship of Siva and the sect of his followers, were already in high repute in India at the early period when these rock temples were ex- cavated.

Of Vishnu and his worshippers, how- ever, to the best of my knowledge, I can find no trace whatever.

Yet under all circumstan- ces it would be too precipitate, to infer that his sect was not at that time in existence. And fourthly.

If it be asked to what era ' Gough's Monuments, etc. We can only plead the want of accurate chronological data, for suggesting a satisfactory answer. The Greeks, it is true, under Alexander and his followers, be- came acquainted with India, but they saw only the northern parts of it, the plains lying be- tween the Indus and the Ganges, where struc- tures of the above description are not to be found.

It is therefore the civil war essay from the monuments themselves that we can draw any conclusions respecting their antiquity, and in them indeed every thing concurs to render the fact certain.

Their vast extent and perfect execution of de- tail, as well as the nature of the undertaking it- self, sufficiently show that it must Have re- quired a great number of years to bring them to completion.

Is it credible that all recollection of such a laborious enterprise as this should have been totally lost, were it not dated from very remote antiquity?

In this grotto was performed the ordeal by water. Blumenbach, together "with a penknife made of Wudz, the first instrument of that material manufactured at Lon- don. How many hondred years must have been necessary to produce such an effect upon a rock so hard I In fine, the style itself also of these ingenious works would seem to attest their extreme age: characterized as they are by great simplicity, united with consummate perfection.

The figures of the gods appear all of them naked, but at the same time carefully furnished with their respective ornaments, their headdress, necklaces, earrings, girdles, together with their proper attributes. There is here no appearance of that excessive surcharge of ap- parel with which the modern Hindus disfigure their idols.

Grotto temples of a similar description but of larger size are found in the neighbouring is- land of Salsette, which is also opposite to Bom- bay. Of these thesis writer s dream possess a description, with a ground-plan and a view, but of the sculp- tures by no means such correct drawings as those of Elephanta, for Niebuhr did not visit Salsette.

Anquetil du Perron in the preface to his edition of the Zend-Avesta S has given a more accurate description, but the subjoined ground- plan is not very intelligible. A more particular ' Gemelli Caneri, Voyage autour du Monde, torn, iii, p. It contains merely a deicription without either plan or drawing. The above publications are suffi- cient to convey some general idea of the monu- ments, but of the numerous sculptures they give only a few specimens.

The lofty mountain, which this island contains, is also composed of a species of rock equally hard, but which nevertheless is exca- vated in every direction. The grand pagoda is vaulted, and extends over an area of forty paces in breadth and one hundred in length : exclu- sive of the four columns at the entrance, thirty are enumerated inside, of which eighteen have their capitals formed of elephants; the rest are merely of an hexagonal shape, which would in- duce a supposition that they still remain un- finished.

At the end of the pagoda, which ter- minates in a circular form, is a kind of cupola. Izxvii - Izxxii. The Great Pagoda is only so termed by way of distinction, for there are two others scarcely inferior in size, which are even furnished with several stories, one over the other ; and between and round about these there is an innumerable quantity of smaller chapels. Every part is or- namented with sculpture, and the apartments, tanks, open courts, are all hewn out of the rock. The ef- fects of the weather on the sculptures here, too, give striking evidence of the many hun- dred years that must have elapsed in order to reduce them to their present state of decay.

But a distinguishing feature in the temple grottos of Salsette are the inscriptions, which we meet with on the walls. Of these Anquetil du Perron has enumerated twenty 'two, speci- mens of which he has subjoined '". We here see manifold representations of this god, who is easy to be known by his woolly hair, long ears, and sitting cross-legged ''. His principal statue is surrounded with small re- liefs, describing probably some scenes taken from his mythological history, in one of which is represented the forepart of a vessel filled with strangers; but these sculptures are, in general, too thesis writer% 27s dream in size to enable us to offer any illustrations of their meaning.

On the other hand there is no doubt that of the smaller temples, the one called Monpeser is dedicated to Siva, as that of Jegvasary is to Indra. It is also worthy of remark that they contain no allusion to the history of Vishnu: on B Langles, plate Ixzz. The drawings we have of this piece of antiquity are much superior to those of any other.

Considered with regard to the complete finish of its details, the temple of Carli appears to occupy the first place of all, though in point of extent it is inferior to that of Salsette. Plate yiii, an interior view of the grotto. Plate iz, plan of the same. There are many grottos at Carli, of which the largest only has been delineated. The interior appears altogether like that of Salsette. The pillars are supported by elephants, on which male and female figures are sitting. Underneath the vaulted roof is an arcade of timber, no doubt of modem construction.

There what is a process analysis essay no sculp- tures in the interior, but only on the walls of the portico, partly representing elephants, and partly figures of men with two sexes.

The statue of Buddha is observable in many parts, sometimes in a sitting posture, after the Indian fashion, at others in an upright position, and always surrounded with worshippers. All these iuscriptions have been copied bj Lord Valentia. The largest structure of this descripton is found in the southern part of the island, in about T N.

These rock temples, according to Davy's opinion, are the largest, the most perfect and ancient, as well as the best preserved in the whole island.

They are con- tained in a grotto, much less indebted tp art than to nature for its formation, before which a wall extends of four hundred feet in length. The dimensions of the largest temple are one hundred and ninety feet by ninety, and forty- five in height. The smaller one is ninety feet long and seventy broad ; the third is seventy- five feet in length and only twenty-one in breadth.

They are all dedicated to Buddha, whose religion is still preserved exclusively in Ceylon, and perhaps there in its greatest pu- rity. The principal temple contains a recum- bent statue of Buddha, thirty feet long, of co- lossal size, as he is generally represented ; we also meet with numerous smaller statues of this god, or his worshippers, in different attitudes ; of which fifty-three have been counted, repre- senting probably persons of his suite.

It is however in the heart of India, and in the midst of the Ghaut- Range, that buildings of the above description are found, which far surpass thesis writer s dream " John Davy, AccouDt of the Interior of Ceylon, Thesis content writer s dream,p. These are the ce- lebrated grottos of Ellora, in the neighbour- hood of Dewgur and Aurengabad"". The latter visited the grottos in person, accompanied by two Brahmans, on whose veracity must de- pend the correctness of the explanations given of the sculptures, of which however he has sub- joined no engravings.

Du Perron has certainly the merit of having supplied a tolerably de- tailed account of these monuments, most of which he appears to have seen, and noted down the observations of the Brahmans on the subject: nevertheless, without presuming to question the fidelity of these latter, few descrip- tions, accurate as they may be, are alone ca- pable of conveying any just idea of the subject.

It might be owing to chance, bat it is worthy of remark, that Thesis content writer s dream is situate exactly in the middle be- tween the northern boundary of India and Cape Comorin. Its distance from the coast is somewhat greater on the east than on the west side.

The expression, nevertheless, that it is in the centre of India, is suiBcientty cor- rect, whether that was the effect of design or mere chance. Prelim, p. The vignette title page of this volume contains a view of Jagannatha, after plate zxxv.

In this range is found a series thesis writer% 27s dream grotto temples, some of two and even three stories in height, partly in juxta- position with each other, and partly separated by intervals, which in their turn are filled with a number of smaller temples ; and the whole ornamented with innumerable reliefs, many of which have suffered from the effects of time, and not a few from the hands of wan- ton violence. There are also many other temple grottos here, which are little if in- deed any thing inferior to that of Kailasa; that of Indra and his consort Indrani contains in like manner a pagoda of the form just de- scribed, and in point of richness of architecture and decoration is fully equal to it.

The two divinities, both surrounded with worshippers, are represented as sitting, Indra on a recum- bent elephant, Indrani on a lion: all these figures are of colossal dimensions. The grotto known by the name of Dumar-Leyna, and con- secrated to Siva and his wife Parvati, is not a whit less remarkable and surprising.

Among all the Hindu divinities, in whose honour temples have been erected, there is hardly one who does not appear to have pos- sessed at some time or other his respective sanctuary at EUora; and in fact we might justly consider the gallery in rear of the great temple of Kailasa, as a perfect specimen of an Hindu Pantheon. The names of not less than forty-three deities of one sort or other have been there enumerated by M alet.

The age of the grottos at EUora is as difficult to determine on just historical principles as those at Elephanta. On the other hand, a certain Mahomedan professes to have heard from some learned pundit, whose name by the way he has for- gotten, that these temples, together with the fortress of Deogur, now called Dawlatabad, were the work of one Rajah II, who reigned r Asiatic Res.

The grotto here given is vaulted like that of Carli, but the arcades are of stone. Such testi- mony as this, however, which rests on no cer- tain foundation, must appear in the eyes of a critical enquirer, as little satisfactory and con- vincing as the former. Indeed, the single cir- cumstance that all these stupendous buildings could have been completed by one rajah in- volves an absolute contradiction ; it is very pos- sible the fortress might have been built at the time specified, and this supposition would at least furnish some ground for the general re- port.

It follows, therefore, that in the present state of the question, we can only ascertain the age of the monuments at EUora, by considering them either separately or in comparison with others already described ; and in conducting this examination, I believe I can fairly secure certain conclusions which are too important to be withheld from the reader.

In the first place. Every thing in these grotto buildings wears an Indian character, no foreign admixture whether of mythology or art is perceptible. They must therefore belong to a period of time when the people freely left to themselves, and under no foreign yoke, were able to lead what sort of life they pleased, and were their own masters in every thing. There is, nevertheless, in their architecture, a certain gradation which it is impossible to mistake; while at Salsette and Elephanta all is simpli- city in the extreme, and the art of sculpture appears yet in its infancy ; so on the other hand, 44 INDIANS.

The comple- tion of these surprising works must, according to our calculations, have required some hun- dreds of years, but we must also allow a space of time nearly equal in duration to that epoch, in which EUora, situate in the middle of India, and near to Deogur, i. In the rock temples of Salsette and Ele- phanta, as well as Carli, the prevailing creed appears to have thesis writer s dream that of Siva or Mahadeva, and next to this, even that of Buddha.

They must consequently be prior in point of time to the expulsion of the latter from India. On the other hand, the temples of Ellora betray not the slightest symptom of any connection with the worship of Buddha: whether it directly follows, therefore, that at the period of their excavation, the Buddhists were already driven from the Indian continent, I cannot certainly venture to determine : this however seems unquestionable, that at the above period the two still existing sects of Siva and Vishnu were then already CHAP.

It appears highly probable that, at the time when these temples, or at least those of Ellora were constructed, the Hindu system of mythology had already attained its full and perfect state of development ; as on the walls of these grottos we find not merely the several deities by themselves, but represented also with their companions, relations, and attendants in general, and indeed to much greater extent and perfection at Ellora than any where else ; from which we may safely argue for a more recent foundation in the case of the latter temples, in- dependent of the great increase of probability which the argument derives from the following very remarkable circumstance.

We observe on the walls of Ellora sculptured representa- tions of great epic subjects, which appear be- yond a doubt to have been furnished by those famous Hindu heroic poems the Ramayana and the M ahabharata, of which we shall have occasion to speak hereafter.

The armies engaged consist mostly of foot soldiers; some are riding upon ele- phants, others in chariots, but none on horses. The plan upon which these great temple grottos are constructed is usually simple, but at the same time always grand in conception. The first entrance is through a vestibule, thesis writer% 27s dream ported by several rows of pillars ; this leads frequently by a series of steps into the grand portico, which is covered in some instances with a flat roof; in others it is vaulted".

For the reprwentation on the walls is copied without Tariatioii from the Rama- yana. Lord Valentia's conjecture Cvol. This plan however is not always observed. There is one grotto at Elephanta which is supported by three rows of pillars ; and another at Salsette has as many as six.

The sanctuary of these temples, which is frequently nothing more than a chapel furnished with a Lingam, is generally found at the extremity : in the large grottos at EUora it is a perfect temple of itself, hewn out of a portion of the solid rock which has been suf- fered to remain for that purpose. On the right and left are chambers cut out of the rock, apparently designed for the reception of priests belonging to the sanctuary ; and in some cases a gallery, supported on pillars, runs round the whole extent, the walls of which are orna- mented with exquisite taste and skill.

The number and extent of these struc- tures, particularly at EUora, appear to show sufficiently the object contemplated in their erection. They must have been designed as a sanctuary and habitation, not only for the prin- cipal deity, but also for his family and attend- ant worshippers. Hence arose the necessity of providing for them also, and erecting for each his separate place of worship.

The vast building of this description is found at Ellora consecrated to Visvakanna an Pendant of Vishnu. Asiatic Kes. The idea of employing colonnades in the cases before us, arose from the obvious neces- sity of leaving pillars to support the roof of the excavated rock, and of course their form would not in the nature of things slader homework help so slender as the Grecian column.

It is not without an involuntary shudder that we pass the threshold of these spacious grottos, and compare the weight of the ponderous roof with the apparent slenderness and inadequacy of its support ; an admirable and ingenious effect, which must have required no ordinary share of abilities in the architect to calculate and deter- mine!

In the general form and mode of deco- rating these columns, judging by the few de- signs we have of them, we meet with great va- n See Gougli, tab. The length of the shaft, in comparison with its diameter, is also subject to considerable varia- tion; in some cases, as for instance, in the temple of Kennery at Salsette, the pillars are furnished with capitals apparently suffered to remain in order to confer additional strength.

But an accurate and character- istic description of these details, which however would be scarcely intelligible without illustra- tive designs, we must leave to the study of professed architects : yet after mentioning the colonnades and pillars, we ought not to omit noticing the obelisks, which to the best of our knowledge are only met with in the grottos of EUora.

In the drawing of Langles, plate xxxvii, copied from the work of the Daniells, this monnment has almost entirely lost the form of an obelisk. P Asiatic Res. The Hindu sculpture, like that of the Egyptians, appears to have proceeded from relief; but owing to the small number of thesis writer s dream signed specimens at present in our possession, it is impossible to deliver any correct opinion of its rise and progress.

The art of sculpturing in very low relief seems to have remained foreign to the usual practice of Hindu artists; probably because, in these temples they were obliged to make their calculations with reference to the general effect which could be produced by the whole, when viewed from a certain distance.

Is it probable that they are pro- fessional storytellers'! According to Hindu mythology, the rajah Vicra- maditya used to have forty -two of these little creatures standing round his throne. Polier, vol. Sir Stamford Raffles was informed at Java, that similar headdresses were worn by native hermits.

History of Java, vol. The climate of India, which is not so dry as that of Egypt, would appear to be less favourable to the preser- vation of fresco paintings ; we nevertheless find in the temples at Ellora universal proof of the contrary. From working in relief, the art of sculpture would insensibly proceed to statuary; several of the reliefs themselves having been formed in such high prominence that they are merely attached to the walls by a portion of their backs.

A colossal character was also applied to their statues, not merely when they represented divinities, but likewise, and indeed in an especial manner, to animals, such as elephants, bulls, lions, etc. These numerous colossal figures of animals, ac- cording to the testimony of an eyewitness, con- tribute to enliven as it were the general appear- ance of the temples, and seem to give the whole a species of animation. Even fabulous beasts were not excluded from this mythology : though we still want accurate designs for enabling us to compare them with those of the Persians and other xiations.

According to this explanation, the inscriptions refer in part to the subjects taken from the M ahabharat, and represented in sculpture on the walls, and the conjecture is certainly not improbable that they may be real quotations from that poem.

They thesis writer s dream, however, less remarkable for their contents than for the peculiar idiom in which they are written, as it tends to prove that the Sanscrit, homework help river pollution in a form which is now obso- lete, was still the prevailing dialect when these grottos were excavated ; a circumstance which must furnish additional proof of their antiquity.

Ibid, p. For my part I must confess, that excepting a few partial resemblances, I am unable to detect any traces of general imitation in these woiks, which are so perfectly In- dian in their whole character, and indeed were so pronounced to be at the first inspection by Malet.

Asiatic Res. India contains one specimen of this new class which is so preeminently distinguished above all the rest, that a particular description of it alone will be suflScient. At the same time, however, I am perfectly willing to allow, that a portion of these grottos, consecrated to the religious services of write phd research proposal archaeology sects, as the Sevras or Jats, may be of later origin an opinion already ad- vanced by English writers, Asiatic Res.

We have not, to my knowledge, any true historical notice of this Rajah II, beyond the mere opinion of the Mohammedan above mentioned, who supposes him to have been a contemporary of Shah Momim- Arif, vrho reigned some nine hundred years ago in Persia. Homework help grade 10 math might pooiibly have existed such a penon as Rajah II of Deogur, but he could scarcely possess a veiy extensive terri- tory ', since, according to the very few fragmente of Indian history still re- maining to us, the whole country, previous to the Mohammedan invasion inwas parcelled out into a ntunber of petty principalities Dow's History of Hindostan, vol.

But we must in this case also, before we can offer any remarks on their style of architecture, previously ascertain the extent of our acquaintance with them.

This, in truth, is at present but very imper- fect. Those travellers who have visited them, appear to have seen little more than the parts immediately adjacent to the coast ; few indeed would venture thesis writer s dream penetrate into the interior, over rugged barriers of rock, and through jun- gles infested with tigers and noxious reptiles, and certainly no single individual could pos- sibly make the thesis content writer s dream with safety.

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